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THE VALLEY OF THE NILE.
THE PTOLEMIES.
ALEXANDRIA.
CLEOPATRA'S FATHER.
ACCESSION TO THE THRONE.
CLEOPATRA AND Caesar.
THE ALEXANDRINE WAR.
CLEOPATRA A QUEEN.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.
CLEOPATRA AND ANTONY.
THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM.
THE END OF CLEOPATRA.

sacrifices in her behalf, and that she should be inclined to favor the 

cause of his friends. Accordingly, instead of sending troops to aid 

Brutus and Cassius, as they had desired her to do, she immediately 

fitted out an expedition to proceed to the coast of Asia, with a view of 

rendering all the aid in her power to Antony's cause. 

 

Cassius, on his part, finding that Cleopatra was determined on joining 

his enemies, immediately resolved on proceeding at once to Egypt and 

taking possession of the country. He also stationed a military force at 

Taenarus, the southern promontory of Greece, to watch for and intercept 

the fleet of Cleopatra as soon as it should appear on the European 

shores. All these plans, however--both those which Cleopatra formed 

against Cassius, and those which Cassius formed against her--failed of 

accomplishment. Cleopatra's fleet encountered a terrible storm, which 

dispersed and destroyed it. A small remnant was driven upon the coast of 

Africa, but nothing could be saved which could be made available for the 

purpose intended. As for Cassius's intended expedition to Egypt, it was 

not carried into effect. The dangers which began now to threaten him 

from the direction of Italy and Rome were so imminent, that, at Brutus's 

urgent request, he gave up the Egyptian plan, and the two generals 

concentrated their forces to meet the armies of the triumvirate which 

were now rapidly advancing to attack them. They passed for this purpose 

across the Hellespont from Sestos to Abydos, and entered Thrace. 

 

After various marches and countermarches, and a long succession of those 

maneuvers by which two powerful armies, approaching a contest, endeavor 

each to gain some position of advantage against the other, the various 

bodies of troops belonging, respectively, to the two powers, came into 

the vicinity of each other near Philippi. Brutus and Cassius arrived 

here first. There was a plain in the neighborhood of the city, with a 

rising ground in a certain portion of it. Brutus took possession of this 

elevation, and intrenched himself there. Cassius posted his forces about 

three miles distant, near the sea. There was a line of intrenchments 

between the two camps, which formed a chain of communication by which 

the positions of the two commanders were connected. The armies were thus 

very advantageously posted. They had the River Strymon and a marsh on 

the left of the ground that they occupied, while the plain was before 

them, and the sea behind. Here they awaited the arrival of their foes. 

 

Antony, who was at this time at Amphipolis, a city not far distant from 

Philippi, learning that Brutus and Cassius had taken their positions in 

anticipation of an attack, advanced immediately and encamped upon the 

plain. Octavius was detained by sickness at the city of Dyrrachium, not 

very far distant. Antony waited for him. It was ten days before he came. 

At length he arrived, though in coming he had to be borne upon a litter, 

being still too sick to travel in any other way. Antony approached, and 

established his camp opposite to that of Cassius, near the sea, while 

Octavius took post opposite to Brutus. The four armies then paused, 

contemplating the probable results of the engagement that was about to 

ensue. 

 

The forces on the two sides were nearly equal; but on the Republican 

side, that is, on the part of Brutus and Cassius, there was great 

inconvenience and suffering for want of a sufficient supply of 

provisions and stores. There was some difference of opinion between 

Brutus and Cassius in respect to what it was best for them to do. Brutus 

was inclined to give the enemy battle. Cassius was reluctant to do so, 

since, under the circumstances in which they were placed, he considered 

it unwise to hazard, as they necessarily must do, the whole success of 

their cause to the chances of a single battle. A council of war was 

convened, and the various officers were asked to give their opinions. In 

this conference, one of the officers having recommended to postpone the 

conflict to the next winter, Brutus asked him what advantage he hoped to 

attain by such delay. "If I gain nothing else," replied the officer, "I 

shall live so much the longer." This answer touched Cassius's pride and 

military sense of honor. Rather than concur in a counsel which was thus, 

on the part of one of its advocates at least, dictated by what he 

considered an inglorious love of life, he preferred to retract his 


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