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Table of contents
THE VALLEY OF THE NILE.
THE PTOLEMIES.
ALEXANDRIA.
CLEOPATRA'S FATHER.
ACCESSION TO THE THRONE.
CLEOPATRA AND Caesar.
THE ALEXANDRINE WAR.
CLEOPATRA A QUEEN.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.
CLEOPATRA AND ANTONY.
THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM.
THE END OF CLEOPATRA.

CHAPTER IX.

 

 

THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.

 

 

Consternation at Rome.--Caesar's will.--Brutus and Cassius.--Parties 

formed.--Octavius and Lepidus.--Character of Octavius.--Octavius 

proceeds to Rome.--He claims his rights as heir.--Lepidus takes command 

of the army.--The triumvirate.--Conference between Octavius, Lepidus, 

and Antony.--Embassage to Cleopatra.--Her decision.--Cassius abandons 

his designs.--Approach of the triumvirs.--The armies meet at Philippi. 

--Sickness of Octavius.--Difference of opinion between Brutus and 

Cassius.--Council of war.--Decision of the council.--Brutus greatly 

elated.--Despondency of Cassius.--Preparations for battle.--Resolution 

of Brutus to die.--Similar resolve of Cassius.--Omens.--Their influence 

upon Cassius.--The swarms of bees.--Warnings received by Brutus.--The 

spirit seen by Brutus.--His conversation with it.--Battle of 

Philippi.--Defeat of Octavius.--Defeat of Cassius.--Brutus goes to his 

aid--Death of Cassius.--Grief of Brutus.--Defeat of Brutus.--His 

retreat.--Situation of Brutus in the glen.--The helmet of water.--Brutus 

surrounded.--Proposal of Statilius.--Anxiety and suspense.--Resolution 

of Brutus.--Brutus's farewell to his friends.--The last duty.--Death of 

Brutus.--Situation of Antony. 

 

 

When the tidings of the assassination of Caesar were first announced to 

the people of Rome, all ranks and classes of men were struck with 

amazement and consternation. No one knew what to say or do. A very large 

and influential portion of the community had been Caesar's friends. It 

was equally certain that there was a very powerful interest opposed to 

him. No one could foresee which of these two parties would now carry the 

day, and, of course, for a time, all was uncertainty and indecision. 

 

Mark Antony came forward at once, and assumed the position of Caesar's 

representative and the leader of the party on that side. A will was 

found among Caesar's effects, and when the will was opened it appeared 

that large sums of money were left to the Roman people, and other large 

amounts to a nephew of the deceased, named Octavius, who will be more 

particularly spoken of hereafter. Antony was named in the will is the 

executor of it. This and other circumstances seemed to authorize him to 

come forward as the head and the leader of the Caesar party. Brutus and 

Cassius, who remained openly in the city after their desperate deed had 

been performed, were the acknowledged leaders of the other party; while 

the mass of the people were at first so astounded at the magnitude and 

suddenness of the revolution which the open and public assassination of 

a Roman emperor by a Roman Senate denoted, that they knew not what to 

say or do. In fact, the killing of Julius Caesar, considering the exalted 

position which he occupied, the rank and station of the men who 

perpetrated the deed, and the very extraordinary publicity of the scene 

in which the act was performed, was, doubtless, the most conspicuous and 

most appalling case of assassination that has ever occurred. The whole 

population of Rome seemed for some days to be amazed and stupefied by 

the tidings. At length, however, parties began to be more distinctly 

formed. The lines of demarkation between them were gradually drawn, and 

men began to arrange themselves more and more unequivocally on the 

opposite sides. 

 

For a short time the supremacy of Antony over the Caesar party was 

readily acquiesced in and allowed. At length, however, and before his 

arrangements were finally matured, he found that he had two formidable 

competitors upon his own side. These were Octavius and Lepidus. 

 

Octavius, who was the nephew of Caesar, already alluded to, was a very 

accomplished and elegant young man, now about nineteen years of age. He 

was the son of Julius Caesar's niece.[1] 

 

[Footnote 1: This Octavius on his subsequent elevation to 

imperial power, received the name of Augustus Caesar, and it is 

by this name that he is generally known in history. He was, 

however, called Octavius at the commencement of his career, 

and, to avoid confusion, we shall continue to designate him by 

this name to the end of our narrative.] 

 

He had always been a great favorite with his uncle. Every possible 

attention had been paid to his education, and he had been advanced by 

Caesar, already, to positions of high importance in public life. Caesar, 

in fact, adopted him as his son, and made him his heir. At the time of 


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