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THE VALLEY OF THE NILE.
THE PTOLEMIES.
ALEXANDRIA.
CLEOPATRA'S FATHER.
ACCESSION TO THE THRONE.
CLEOPATRA AND Caesar.
THE ALEXANDRINE WAR.
CLEOPATRA A QUEEN.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.
CLEOPATRA AND ANTONY.
THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM.
THE END OF CLEOPATRA.

"we shall soon meet again." By these and similar assurances he 

endeavored to encourage the young prince, and then sent him away. 

Ptolemy was received by the Egyptians with great joy, and was 

immediately placed at the head of the government. Instead, however, of 

endeavoring to promote a settlement of the quarrel with Caesar, he seemed 

to enter into it now himself, personally, with the utmost ardor, and 

began at once to make the most extensive preparations both by sea and 

land for a vigorous prosecution of the war. What the result of these 

operations would have been can now not be known, for the general aspect 

of affairs was, soon after these transactions, totally changed by the 

occurrence of a new and very important event which suddenly intervened, 

and which turned the attention of all parties, both Egyptians and 

Romans, to the eastern quarter of the kingdom. The tidings arrived that 

a large army under the command of a general named Mithradates, whom 

Caesar had dispatched into Asia for this purpose, had suddenly appeared 

at Pelusium, had captured that city and were now ready to march to 

Alexandria. 

 

The Egyptian army immediately broke up its encampments in the 

neighborhood of Alexandria, and marched to the eastward to meet these 

new invaders, Caesar followed them with all the forces that he could 

safely take away from the city. He left the city in the night, and 

unobserved, and moved across the country with such celerity that he 

joined Mithradates before the forces of Ptolemy had arrived. After 

various marches and maneuvers, the armies met, and a great battle was 

fought. The Egyptians were defeated. Ptolemy's camp was taken. As the 

Roman army burst in upon one side of it, the guards and attendants of 

Ptolemy fled upon the other, clambering over the ramparts in the utmost 

terror and confusion. The foremost fell headlong into the ditch below, 

which was thus soon filled to the brim with the dead and the dying; 

while those who came behind pressed on over the bridge thus formed, 

trampling remorselessly, as they fled, on the bodies of their comrades, 

who lay writhing, struggling, and shrieking beneath their feet. Those 

who escaped reached the river. They crowded together into a boat which 

lay at the bank and pushed off from the shore. The boat was overloaded, 

and it sank as soon as it left the land. The Romans drew the bodies 

which floated to the shore upon the bank again, and they found among 

them one, which, by the royal cuirass which was upon it, the customary 

badge and armor of the Egyptian kings, they knew to be the body of 

Ptolemy. 

 

The victory which Caesar obtained in this battle and the death of Ptolemy 

ended the war. Nothing now remained but for him to place himself at the 

head of the combined forces and march back to Alexandria. The Egyptian 

forces which had been left there made no resistance, and he entered the 

city in triumph. He took ArsinoŽ prisoner. He decreed that Cleopatra 

should reign as queen, and that she should marry her youngest brother, 

the other Ptolemy,--a boy at this time about eleven years of age. A 

marriage with one so young was, of course, a mere form. Cleopatra 

remained, as before, the companion of Caesar. 

 

Caesar had, in the mean time, incurred great censure at Rome, and 

throughout the whole Roman world, for having thus turned aside from his 

own proper duties as the Roman consul, and the commander-in-chief of the 

armies of the empire, to embroil himself in the quarrels of a remote and 

secluded kingdom with which the interests of the Roman commonwealth were 

so little connected. His friends and the authorities at Rome were 

continually urging him to return. They were especially indignant at his 

protracted neglect of his own proper duties, from knowing that he was 

held in Egypt by a guilty attachment to the queen,--thus not only 

violating his obligations to the state, but likewise inflicting upon his 

wife Calpurnia, and his family at Rome, an intolerable wrong. But Caesar 

was so fascinated by Cleopatra's charms, and by the mysterious and 

unaccountable influence which she exercised over him, that he paid no 

heed to any of these remonstrances. Even after the war was ended he 

remained some months in Egypt to enjoy his favorite's society. He would 

spend whole nights in her company, in feasting and revelry. He made a 

splendid royal progress with her through Egypt after the war was over, 

attended by a numerous train of Roman guards. He formed a plan for 


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