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THE VALLEY OF THE NILE.
THE PTOLEMIES.
ALEXANDRIA.
CLEOPATRA'S FATHER.
ACCESSION TO THE THRONE.
CLEOPATRA AND Caesar.
THE ALEXANDRINE WAR.
CLEOPATRA A QUEEN.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.
CLEOPATRA AND ANTONY.
THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM.
THE END OF CLEOPATRA.

to judge between Cleopatra and Ptolemy as their superior, but only in 

the performance of the duty solemnly assigned by Ptolemy Auletes, the 

father, to the Roman people, whose representative he was. Other than 

this he claimed no jurisdiction in the case; and his only wish, in the 

discharge of the duty which devolved upon him to consider the cause, was 

to settle the question in a manner just and equitable to all the parties 

concerned, and thus arrest the progress of the civil war, which, if not 

arrested, threatened to involve the country in the most terrible 

calamities. He counseled them, therefore, to disperse, and no longer 

disturb the peace of the city. He would immediately take measures for 

trying the question between Cleopatra and Ptolemy, and he did not doubt, 

but that they would all be satisfied with his decision. 

 

This speech, made, as it was, in the eloquent and persuasive, and yet 

dignified and imposing manner for which Caesar's harangues to turbulent 

assemblies like these were so famed, produced a great effect. Some were 

convinced, others were silenced; and those whose resentment and anger 

were not appeased, found themselves deprived of their power by the 

pacification of the rest. The mob was dispersed, and Ptolemy remained 

with Cleopatra in Caesar's custody. 

 

The next day, Caesar, according to his promise, convened an assembly of 

the principal people of Alexandria and officers of state, and then 

brought out Ptolemy and Cleopatra, that he might decide their cause. The 

original will which Ptolemy Auletes had executed had been deposited in 

the public archives of Alexandria, and carefully preserved there. An 

authentic copy of it had been sent to Rome. Caesar caused the original 

will to be brought out and read to the assembly. The provisions of it 

were perfectly explicit and clear. It required that Cleopatra and 

Ptolemy should be married, and then settled the sovereign power upon 

them jointly, as king and queen. It recognized the Roman commonwealth as 

the ally of Egypt, and constituted the Roman government the executor of 

the will, and the guardian of the king and queen. In fact, so clear and 

explicit was this document, that the simple reading of it seemed to be 

of itself a decision of the question. When, therefore, Caesar announced 

that, in his judgment, Cleopatra was entitled to share the supreme power 

with Ptolemy, and that it was his duty, as the representative of the 

Roman power and the executor of the will, to protect both the king and 

the queen in their respective rights, there seemed to be nothing that 

could be said against his decision. 

 

Besides Cleopatra and Ptolemy, there were two other children of Ptolemy 

Auletes in the royal family at this time. One was a girl, named ArsinoŽ. 

The other, a boy, was, singularly enough, named, like his brother, 

Ptolemy. These children were quite young, but Caesar thought that it 

would perhaps gratify the Alexandrians, and lead them to acquiesce more 

readily in his decision, if he were to make some royal provision for 

them. He accordingly proposed to assign the island of Cyprus as a realm 

for them. This was literally a gift, for Cyprus was at this time a Roman 

possession. 

 

The whole assembly seemed satisfied with this decision except Pothinus. 

He had been so determined and inveterate an enemy to Cleopatra, that, as 

he was well aware, her restoration must end in his downfall and ruin. He 

went away from the assembly moodily determining that he would not submit 

to the decision, but would immediately adopt efficient measures to 

prevent its being carried into effect. 

 

Caesar made arrangements for a series of festivals and celebrations, to 

commemorate and confirm the reestablishment of a good understanding 

between the king and the queen, and the consequent termination of the 

war. Such celebrations, he judged, would have great influence in 

removing any remaining animosities from the minds of the people, and 

restore the dominion of a kind and friendly feeling throughout the city. 

 

The people fell in with these measures, and cordially co-operated to 

give them effect; but Pothinus and Achillas, though they suppressed all 

outward expressions of discontent, made incessant efforts in secret to 

organize a party, and to form plans for overthrowing the influence of 

Caesar, and making Ptolemy again the sole and exclusive sovereign. 

 

Pothinus represented to all whom he could induce to listen to him that 


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