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Table of contents
THE VALLEY OF THE NILE.
THE PTOLEMIES.
ALEXANDRIA.
CLEOPATRA'S FATHER.
ACCESSION TO THE THRONE.
CLEOPATRA AND Caesar.
THE ALEXANDRINE WAR.
CLEOPATRA A QUEEN.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.
CLEOPATRA AND ANTONY.
THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM.
THE END OF CLEOPATRA.

a friend, or, at least, not an enemy, and yet he conducted himself 

toward them in an overbearing and insolent manner. He had agreed to make 

arrangements for supplying them with food, and he did this by procuring 

damaged provisions of a most wretched quality; and when the soldiers 

remonstrated, he said to them, that they who lived at other people's 

cost had no right to complain of their fare. He caused wooden and 

earthen vessels to be used in the palace, and said, in explanation, that 

he had been compelled to sell all the gold and silver plate of the royal 

household to meet the exactions of Caesar. He busied himself, too, about 

the city, in endeavoring to excite odium against Caesar's proposal to 

hear and decide the question at issue between Cleopatra and Ptolemy. 

Ptolemy was a sovereign, he said, and was not amenable to any foreign 

power whatever. Thus, without the courage or the energy to attempt any 

open, manly, and effectual system of hostility, he contented himself 

with making all the difficulty in his power, by urging an incessant 

pressure of petty, vexatious, and provoking, but useless annoyances. 

Caesar's demands may have been unjust, but they were bold, manly, and 

undisguised. The eunuch may have been right in resisting them; but the 

mode was so mean and contemptible, that mankind have always taken part 

with Caesar in the sentiments which they have formed as spectators of the 

contest. 

 

With the very small force which Caesar had at his command, and shut up as 

he was in the midst of a very great and powerful city, in which both the 

garrison and the population were growing more and more hostile to him 

every day, he soon found his situation was beginning to be attended with 

very serious danger. He could not retire from the scene. He probably 

would not have retired if he could have done so. He remained, therefore, 

in the city, conducting himself all the time with prudence and 

circumspection, but yet maintaining, as at first, the same air of 

confident self-possession and superiority which always characterized his 

demeanor. He, however, dispatched a messenger forthwith into Syria, the 

nearest country under the Roman sway, with orders that several legions 

which were posted there should be embarked and forwarded to Alexandria 

with the utmost possible celerity. 

 


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