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Table of contents
THE VALLEY OF THE NILE.
THE PTOLEMIES.
ALEXANDRIA.
CLEOPATRA'S FATHER.
ACCESSION TO THE THRONE.
CLEOPATRA AND Caesar.
THE ALEXANDRINE WAR.
CLEOPATRA A QUEEN.
THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI.
CLEOPATRA AND ANTONY.
THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM.
THE END OF CLEOPATRA.

was abandoning himself once more to a life of guilty pleasure there. The 

greatness of mind which this beautiful and devoted wife thus displayed, 

attracted the admiration of all mankind. It produced, however, one other 

effect, which Octavia must have greatly deprecated. It aroused a strong 

and universal feeling of indignation against the unworthy object toward 

whom this extraordinary magnanimity was displayed. 

 

In the mean time, Antony gave himself up wholly to Cleopatra's influence 

and control, and managed all the affairs of the Roman empire in the East 

in the way best fitted to promote her aggrandizement and honor. He made 

Alexandria his capital, celebrated triumphs there, arranged ostentatious 

expeditions into Asia and Syria with Cleopatra and her train, gave her 

whole provinces as presents, and exalted her two sons, Alexander and 

Ptolemy, children born during the period of his first acquaintance with 

her, to positions of the highest rank and station, as his own 

acknowledged sons. The consequences of these and similar measures at 

Rome were fatal to Antony's character and standing. Octavius reported 

every thing to the Roman Senate and people, and made Antony's 

misgovernment and his various misdemeanors the ground of the heaviest 

accusations against him. Antony, hearing of these things, sent his 

agents to Rome and made accusations against Octavius; but these counter 

accusations were of no avail. Public sentiment was very strong and 

decided against him at the capital, and Octavius began to prepare for 

war. 

 

Antony perceived that he must prepare to defend himself. Cleopatra 

entered into the plans which he formed for this purpose with great 

ardor. Antony began to levy troops, and collect and equip galleys and 

ships of war, and to make requisitions of money and military stores from 

all the eastern provinces and kingdoms. Cleopatra put all the resources 

of Egypt at his disposal. She furnished him with immense sums of money, 

and with an inexhaustible supply of corn, which she procured for this 

purpose from her dominions in the valley of the Nile. The various 

divisions of the immense armament which was thus provided for were 

ordered to rendezvous at Ephesus, where Antony and Cleopatra were 

awaiting to receive them, having proceeded there when their arrangements 

in Egypt were completed, and they were ready to commence the campaign. 

 

When all was ready for the expedition to set sail from Ephesus, it was 

Antony's judgment that it would be best for Cleopatra to return to 

Egypt, and leave him to go forth with the fleet to meet Octavius alone. 

Cleopatra was, however, determined not to go away. She did not dare to 

leave Antony at all to himself, for fear that in some way or other a 

peace would be effected between himself and Octavius, which would result 

in his returning to Octavia and abandoning _her_. She accordingly 

contrived to persuade Antony to retain her with him, by bribing his 

chief counselor to advise him to do so. His counselor's name was 

Canidius. Canidius, having received Cleopatra's money, while yet he 

pretended to be wholly disinterested in his advice, represented to 

Antony that it would not be reasonable to send Cleopatra away, and 

deprive her of all participation in the glory of the war, when she was 

defraying so large a part of the expense of it. Besides, a large portion 

of the army consisted of Egyptian troops, who would feel discouraged and 

disheartened if Cleopatra were to leave them, and would probably act far 

less efficiently in the conflict than they would do if animated by the 

presence of their queen. Then, moreover, such a woman as Cleopatra was 

not to be considered, as many women would be, an embarrassment and a 

source of care to a military expedition which she might join, but a very 

efficient counselor and aid to it. She was, he said, a very sagacious, 

energetic, and powerful queen, accustomed to the command of armies and 

to the management of affairs of state, and her aid in the conduct of the 

expedition might be expected to conduce very materially to its success. 

 

Antony was easily won by such persuasions as these, and it was at length 

decided that Cleopatra should accompany him. 

 

Antony then ordered the fleet to move forward to the island of Samos. 

Here it was brought to anchor and remained for some time, waiting for 

the coming in of new re-enforcements, and for the completion of the 


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